Women with children are less likely to be employed than those without, while the reverse is true for men, according to EU data on the gender employment gap.
The European Commission’s data analysis wing, Eurostat, has released a series of findings relating to gender disparity to coincide with International Women’s Day.
It found that the gender pay gap has narrowed in the EU over the past decade, but remains extremely high.
In 2020, women’s gross hourly earnings were on average 13% lower than men’s in the EU, he said.
“In the space of eight years, between 2012 and 2020, the gender pay gap in the EU has been reduced from 16.4% to 13%.”
No data was provided for Ireland, but Luxembourg is closest in terms of equal pay for men and women.
“The unadjusted gender pay gap varied between EU Member States, with the highest gaps observed in: Latvia (22.3%), Estonia (21.1%), Austria (18, 9%) and Germany (18.3%).
“At the other end of the scale, the differences were smallest in Luxembourg (0.7%), Romania (2.4%), Slovenia (3.1%) and Italy (4.2 %),” Eurostat said.
Having children in the household negatively affects the employment rate of women while it positively affects the employment rate of men, regardless of the level of education of the parents, the organization said.
“In 2020, 77% of women aged 25-54 without children were employed in the EU. In contrast, women of this age with children had a lower employment rate (72%, or minus 5 percentage points ).
“Children in the household had an opposite effect on the employment rate of men in this age group. Men without children had a lower employment rate (81%) than men with children (91%, or 9 percentage points).”
Regarding part-time work, Eurostat said that almost one in four women with children aged 25-54 had such a job in 2020, while this share reached 16% among women without children.
“Again, this had the opposite effect for men: men with children had a lower rate of part-time employment (5%) than men without children (7%)”, specifies- he.
According to the data, the higher the level of education, the smaller the employment gap between people with and without children.
Part-time jobs were much less common among women without children, among those with a high level of education.
In the third quarter of 2021, there were more women than men working in household activities, human health and social work, and education. However, women represented only 10% of workers in construction and 13% in mines and quarries.